The Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) is a one-dimensional thermodynamic ice model which was originally developed as a sea ice model by colleagues Greg Flato and Ross Brown from Environment Canada. The model has evolved over the years through efforts by members of our group (Claude Duguay, Patrick Ménard, and Laura Brown) and continues to be improved. CLIMo has been validated extensively and applied to simulate lake ice cover (phenology, thickness and composition) across Northern Canada and Alaska under contemporary and future (projected) climate conditions.

Examples of recent outputs generated with the model can be found on the Products page.


FLake is a freshwater lake model capable of predicting the vertical temperature structure and mixing conditions in lakes of various depths on time scales from a few hours to many years. The model is intended for use as a lake parameterization scheme in numerical weather prediction, climate modeling, and other numerical prediction systems for environmental applications. FLake can also be used as a stand-alone lake model, as a physical module in models of aquatic ecosystems, and as an educational tool.”

Our group has been evaluating lake surface temperature and ice cover (freeze-up/break-up dates and thickness) simulated with FLake against remote sensing and in situ observations from Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada.